In-text Citation Examples
Books and chapters
Ayers, H. (1998). Classroom management: A practical approach for primary and secondary teachers. London, England: Fulton.
Chapter in an edited book
Cohen, D. K., & Barnes, C. A. (1993). Pedagogy and policy. In D. K. Cohen, M. W. McLaughlin, & J. E. Talbert (Eds.),Teaching for understanding: Challenges for policy and practice (pp. 207-239). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Chapter/Entry in a reference book (no author)
Portugal. (2007). In J. J. Arnett (Ed.), International encyclopedia of adolescence (Vol. 2, pp.795-812). New York, NY: Routlege.
Bolano, R. (2012). The savage detectives (N. Wimmer, Trans.). London: Picador. (Original work published 1998).
Journal article with up to and including seven authors:
Crawford, M., and Witte, M. (1999). Strategies for mathematics: Teaching in context. Educational Leadership, 57, 134-138.
Journal article with eight or more authors:
Johnson, C. A., Bound, L., Jones, P. P., Smith, D. J., Lind, R. E., Miller, S. J., ...Yuckyuck, H. (2003). Reading for pleasure: A concept analysis. Journal of Laughter, 26(5), 1-11.
Note: Journals that have multiple issues in a volume include issue information in brackets after the volume number.
Grey, C. (1992, September). Childhood immunizations. Chatelaine, 65(9), 38.
Simon, P. (2009, November 7). Stoic Albertan attitude to sick days has morphed into viral paranoia. Edmonton Journal, p. B1.
Goodman, A. L. (1951, July 16). Catcher in the rye [Book review]. New Republic, 125, 20.
General web resources
Trompstein, J. (2008, January 21). Re: The future of the world [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://blogland.com/the_future.php
Renaissance (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 24, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance
Informally published or archived information
Smith, J. (2008, October). Child development: Motor skills in early infancy [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://vista4.srv.ualberta.ca/webct/urw/...
E-mail communications from individuals should be cited as personal communications. Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.
T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)
(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)
H. T. Coutts Education Library. (2012, May 24). Is a deskless classroom the way of the future? [Facebook update]. Retreived from http://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=198282776911913&story_fbid=414938651873581
DOI vs. URL
Always cite the DOI, if one is available. If the ebook has no DOI, which is common, cite the URL where it is available.
Want to know more about DOIs? Read about them here!
Citing secondary sources
On occasion, you may wish to refer to an author's work that is mentioned in a source which is not the author's original. Name the original author in the in-text citation, followed by (as cited in secondary source, date).
For example, if you want to cite Smith's idea, which you read about in Jones' book... you would provide an in-text citation for Smith's study (Smith, as cited in Jones, 2002). In the reference list, include a reference only for the Jones' book, which is the secondary source where you found your information.
Cite both authors every time (Jones & Smith, 2011).
3 to 5 authors?
Cite all authors the first time (Jones, Smith, & Brown, 2011), but after that just cite the first one listed (Jones et al., 2011).
6 or more authors?
Only cite the first named author, followed by et al. (Smith et al., 2011)
When listing multiple authors for in-text citations, use the "&" symbol within brackets (Jones & Smith, 2011).
Quoting vs. Paraphrasing
A direct quote involves copying exact words or phrases from your source material, while paraphrasing involves summarizing someone else's ideas or thoughts into your own words.
Each time you quote or paraphrase a source, you must include both an in-text citation (in brackets), and an entry in your final reference list.
What's the difference?
While direct quotes require quotation marks and a page number (or paragraph number if there are no pages), paraphrasing does not.