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Citation Guides: MLA Citations

Formatting papers using APA or MLA styles

MLA Examples

Books
(MLA Handbook, sec. 5.5)

Single author

Perle, George. Serial Composition and Atonality: an Introduction to the Music of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. 6th ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. Print.

Multiple authors

Higonnet, Margaret R., and Joan Templeton, eds. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994. Print.

Edited Book

Gibbons, Reginald, ed. The Poet's Work: 29 Masters of 20th Century Poetry on the Origins and Practice of their Art. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979. Print.

Group or corporate author

World Bank. Transition, The First Ten Years: Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington: World Bank, 2002. Print.

Chapter or essay in book

Calvino, Italo. "Cybernetics and Ghosts." The Uses of Literature: Essays. Trans. Patrick Creagh. San Diego: Harcourt, 1982. 3-27. Print.

 

Article in a journal (one author)

Wolff, Larry. "'The Boys are Pickpockets, and the Girl is a Prostitute': Gender and Juvenile Criminality in Early Victorian England from Oliver Twist to London Labour." New Literary History 27.2 (1996): 227-249. Print.

Note: Provide issue numbers (if available) in addition to volume numbers, for all items in the Works Cited list, even if the volume pagination is continuous. See section 5.4.1 of MLA Handbook.

Article in a journal (multiple authors)

Millán-Zaibert, Elisabeth and Leo Zaibert. "El Análisis Filosófico." Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos 627 (2002): 29-35. Print.

Article in a popular magazine

Lerner, Barbara. "America's Schools: Still Failing After All These Years."National Review 15 Sep. 1997: 42+. Print.

Note: use the + sign if the pages are not consecutive; 42-44 would be the correct way if this article ran on consecutive pages; do not give the volume and issue number, even if they are available.

Article in a newspaper

Kennedy, Louise. "Same Old Song." Boston Globe 9 March 2003, late ed.: N1+. Print.

Article from a full-text database

Andreatta, Filippo. "Italy at a Crossroads: The Foreign Policy of a Medium Power after the End of Bipolarity." Daedalus 130.2: 45-65. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 9 March 2009.

Article from an e-journal collection

Brooks, Gwendolyn. "Henry Dumas: Perceptiveness and Zeal." Black American Literature Forum 22.2 (1988): 177. JSTOR. Web. 9 March 2009.

Article from a free web e-journal

Castle, Robert. "From Desperation to Salvation: Concealing and Revealing Nothing in History." Archipelago 6.3 (2003): n. pag. Web. 9 March 2009.

Note: n. pag. means that the publication does not have pagination.

Parenthetical References

Parenthetical documentation allows you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference listed on the Works Cited page at the end of your paper.

  • In most cases, providing the author's last name and a page number are sufficient: 

    In response to rapid metropolitan expansion, urban renewal projects sought "an order in which more significant kinds of conflict, more complex and intellectually stimulating kinds of disharmony, may take place" (Mumford 485).
  • If there are two or three authors, include the last name of each: 

    (Winks and Kaiser 176) 
    (Choko, Bourassa, and Baril 258-263)
  • If there are more than three authors, include the last name of the first author followed by "et al." without any intervening punctuation: 

    (Baldwin et al. 306)
  • If the author is mentioned in the text, only the page reference needs to be inserted: 

    According to Postman, broadcast news influences the decision-making process (51-63).
  • If there is no author, as is the case with some web pages, include either the whole title of the work in the text or use a shortened form of the title in parentheses, using the first words of the title. Italicize the titles of books and place the titles of articles in quotation marks: 

    Voice of the Shuttle has many electronic sources.
  • If there are no page numbers in your source, as is the case with some web pages, you can indicate the section or paragraph number in your parenthetical reference. If there are no such reference marks, do not include them in your reference. Do not count unnumbered paragraphs: 

    Winston argues that "Rourke has lowered his defenses" (par. 29).
  • When citing a quotation which is cited in another source, indicate the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your works cited. Use the abbreviation qtd. in to indicate that the information has been quoted in another source: 

    Landow admitted that there was "work to be done" (qtd. in Rogers 333).

Further examples and explanations are available in Chapter 6 of the MLA Handbook.

 

Web Resources

Web/Online
(MLA Handbook, sec. 5.6)

Web page

Pilgrim, David. "The Brute Caricature." Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. Ferris State University. Nov. 2000. Web. 20 May 2009.

Note: If your instructor requires it, include the URL immediately following the date of access, a period, and a space. Enclose the URL in angle brackets (<>), and follow it with a period. For more details on citing works on the Web, see section 5.6 of the MLA Handbook.

Blog Posting

Kristoff, Nicholas. "How To Get Out in the Woods (and Survive the Bears!)".Nicholas D. Kristoff: On the Ground. New York Times, 9 August 2009. Web. 27 August 2009.

Note: For more information about citing works only on the Web, see section 5.6.2b of the MLA Handbook.

Online Video

"The L-Team." Williams College Libraries. YouTube. 2007. Web. 27 Aug. 2009.

Note: Basic elements are in this order: "Segment Title." Director/Creator (if available). Title of database or Website (italicized). Year of publication. Format. Date of access. For more information see sections 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d.

In the parenthetical reference, lead with the author name (if available) or title or beginning words of the title if author is not available. Put parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence in your text.

Article from a free web e-journal

Castle, Robert. "From Desperation to Salvation: Concealing and Revealing Nothing in History." Archipelago 6.3 (2003): n. pag. Web. 9 March 2009.

Note: n. pag. means that the publication does not have pagination.

Article from a full-text database

Andreatta, Filippo. "Italy at a Crossroads: The Foreign Policy of a Medium Power after the End of Bipolarity." Daedalus 130.2: 45-65. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 9 March 2009.

Article from an e-journal collection

Brooks, Gwendolyn. "Henry Dumas: Perceptiveness and Zeal." Black American Literature Forum 22.2 (1988): 177. JSTOR. Web. 9 March 2009.