Skip to main content
site header image

Citation Guides: Chicago Citations

Formatting papers using APA or MLA styles

Book Citation Examples

No Author or Editor - Reference Book:

College Bound Seniors. Princeton: College Board Publications, 1979.  

One Author:

Whitehead, Laurence. Latin America: A New Interpretation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Two Authors:

Restall, Matthew, and Kris Lane. Latin America in Colonial Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Subsequent Edition:

Black, Jan Knippers, ed. Latin America, Its Problems and Its Promise: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2005.

Edited Book:

McPherson, Alan, ed. Anti-Americanism in Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.

Electronic Book:

Gallagher, Gary W., and Alan T. Nolan, eds. The Myth of the Lost Cause and Civil War History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000. Accessed October 19, 2012.

Corporate Author:

National Council of Teachers of English.  Adventuring with Books; 2,400 Titles for Pre-K-Grade 8. New York: Citation Press, 1973.

Anthology or Compilation:

Sherow, James E., ed.  A Sense of the American West: An Anthology of Environmental History. Boston: Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998.

Chapter in a Book:

Huxham, Chris. “Collaboration and Collaborative Advantage.” In Creating Collaborative Advantage, edited by Chris Huxham, 1-18. London: Sage, 1996.

Journal / Newspaper Examples


Magazine, No Author, from a Printed Source:
"Unsnarling the I-way Traffic Jams." Business Week, January 12, 1998, 87.


Magazine from a Print Source:

Ezzell, Carol. "Care for a Dying Continent." Scientific American, May 2000.

Magazine Article from an Online Database:

Bunce, Valerie. "Rethinking Recent Democritization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience." World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003): 167-192.

Journal Article from a Print Source:

Gallegos, Bee, and Peter Rillero. "Bibliographic Database Competencies for Preservice Teachers." Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 4(1996): 231-246.

Journal Article from an Online Journal:

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Online Journal Article from Web:

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Newspaper Article from an Online Database:

Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008.

Online Newspaper Article from Web:

Newton, Carl. “Driving-while-texting ban advances Senate.” The Arizona Republic, February 15, 2010.

Footnotes & Endnotes


Below are instructions for using footnotes to cite most of the sources encountered in undergraduate research. It is a good idea to read through these instructions before beginning to write your paper.

Please note that footnotes are so-named because they appear at the bottom of the page that contains the text you are annotating.

Endnotes follow the same citation style, but are listed together at the end of the paper before the bibliography.

General Guidelines

  • Your footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper. Use your word processing program to insert footnotes and it will number them for you automatically.
  • The footnote number should always be inserted after the punctuation. 
  • The first time you cite a source, you will include a full citation. For all subsequent references to that text, your footnote citation will be in abbreviated form. 
  • Cite authors’ names as they appear in the texts. Don’t replace first names with initials unless the names appear this way on the title page of the source. If no author is listed, organize the entry by the title.

Please note:

  • In footnotes, information is separated by commas, while in the bibliography, it is separated by periods.
  • In footnotes, the author's first name is listed first, while in the bibliography, the author's last name is listed first.
  • The titles of books and journals are put in italics.
  • The titles of articles are put in quotation marks.
  • All key words in titles are capitalized.

For example:

1. Carolyn Kay, Art and the German Bourgeoisie:  Alfred Lichtwark and Modern Painting in Hamburg, 1886-1914 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002), 100.

  • Subsequent footnote/endnotes for the same source are shortened to provide only the author’s last name, short title, and page number.

For example:

2. Kay, Art and the German Bourgeoisie, 51.

  • If a footnote/endnote is from the same source as the one immediately preceding it, the term “ibid.” can be used in place of the author and title. You must still include a page number unless the page number is identical to the previous footnote as well.

3. Ibid., 55.